BEEKEEPING IN THE NORTHEAST - An account of my beekeeping, not a treatise of expertise, but for friends & family who wish to keep bees vicariously through me, and for the occasional apiarist passer-by.

Saturday, September 23, 2017

Fall Feeding Revisited

Wonalancet Mowed - A regular occurrence
This is adapted from my March 2016 article "Why Beekeepers Feed Their Bees". Photo: "Wonalancet Mowed"

Check on your hives for honey stores in this warmer than normal weather. Now is when to feed. This article is specific to NOW in New Hampshire:

FALL ~ Sigh... It is September 19, 2017 and Wonalancet is mowed. A few pockets of goldenrod and aster in the woods here and there, but the flow is over. Seven months to go to the dandelion flow.

If it were cold the bees would be conservative in eating through what they have stored to this point, but those hurricanes in the Atlantic are bringing summer weather to New England.  The girls are active and out scouting.

Open feeding is dicey but sometimes necessary...
take care with such a plan
In the cold days of fall after the nectar flow is done for the year I have not normally fed my hives of the last few years because they have been very good about putting up their own stores for winter. My harvest in August is frame by frame, from those that can spare it. Never whole supers. I use a lot of honey so thank goodness it does not go to waste. With 3 to 5 lbs per frame an August harvest in my apiary's subarctic plant hardiness zone gets us... and the bees, through the winter.

A rain gutter with capped ends makes
a great water holder or feeder
As a rule, a beekeeper feeds in the fall to insure an abundance of honey and pollen stored over the colony as they move in cluster up through the hive, November through April... sometimes into May. I may put out a thicker batch of syrup, fresh daily, at a feeding station. This is two parts sugar to one part water in the hope they will have time to evaporate the moisture off before clustering at daytime temps of 50-57F degrees in preparation for winter. Some beekeepers gradually thicken the syrup and even add a slight amount of pollen.

Don't forget the stones!
Girls can drown...
Just thinking about my girls eating sugar is hard, but at least they do put their enzymes into it as if it were nectar and does become a kind of honey. Still, I decided to add a little pollen supplement powder. I'm not used to doing this so went with the 8 cups sugar to 4 cups water and a 1/8th cup of dry powder. 

Yes, I am open feeding in my Red Path apiary! I don't recommend this. With lots of hives it is less intrusive. I put out just enough for a day and fill it in the morning. Normally, you would open feed far from the apiary but I don't have that option. On my weak hive in Center Ossipee I am using a bucket feeder above the inner cover and I have a little chicken waterer for the other girls that I take in when I go home from work.

Full on pollen supplement feeding in the fall is not recommended as it can stimulate brood production at a time of year when the colony should be shrinking in numbers in order to maximize its limited resources over the long New England winter to come.

In freezing weather - once the quilt box is on - I have used a variety of sugar recipes in the tops of my hives over the years. One year it was Capital Area Beekeeper's Club fondant; other years it has been a top feeding wet sugar mix, see: Karen Thurlow of New Moon Apiary in Maine. She makes up a batch of sugar with enough water to make it crumbly and inserts in into her winter top super set up. 

8 cups sugar to 4 cups water 2:1
1/8 cup of dry pollen supplement.
go light on the pollen. There are
supplements & substitutes. Original article has details.
I like slipping in this sugar mix as a precaution.  Beekeepers need to be careful and very astute when feeding any time of the year, especially syrup. The girls love to hoard, so if they max out the space in the hive with supplemental liquid feed it may not be properly evaporated before winter sets in. I have made the mistake of rearranging these uncapped frames of syrup to the top super only to have the high moisture content freeze in the cell and then, like tiny ice cubes, melt and drench my bees. This could be deadly.

Note: Except for Karen's loose sugar method, I am not a fan of what are called 'candy boards'. I have had them melt down and drown my bees or create moisture issues with my hives. This is not the usual experience. Most beekeepers love them. 

For the complete article see "Why Beekeepers Feed Their Bees" and for a valuable resource of feeding recipes and strategies see this Maine State Beekeeper's Association page. I welcome any feedback, especially if you see any way this article can be improved.

Saturday, August 12, 2017

Treatment-Free Mite Record Keeping

Just some great links to help remind everyone to keep track of their mite numbers.
What - How - When - Why - Watch!

What - You are looking for how many mites per 100 bees. A quote from Article: "Test For Varroa" that is of interest to us northern rural farm & forest beekeepers: “Thresholds are regional since they largely depend on how long the brood rearing season is and thresholds are dependent on the type of beekeeper. The colonies of an isolated hobbyist in the north could maybe withstand a 10-12% infestation, but colonies of a migratory beekeeper in Texas may need to use the 3% infestation threshold.” Katie Lee – Bee Informed Partnership

How - I use the "sugar-shake" method to TEST. Caution: don't confuse the sugar shake method TEST with treating bees for varroa using powdered sugar in the hive. This is no longer a respected way to effectively or safely knock mite counts down in your colonies. Use powdered sugar to TEST not treat. There are too many variables using it to treat and too many risks you may actually kill your colony. I have killed two colonies as a result of treating with powdered sugar, even sugar I powdered myself that did not have corn starch in it. Search for an article about this treatment method well researched by respected scientist Jennifer Berry.

Now as for TESTING with sugar - Phil Gavin of Portland's Honey Exchange is a northern URBAN beekeeper looking to treat at lower mite counts that the rural beekeeper; but he does a great job of showing how to test for varroa with the sugar shake method in this YouTube video: Sugar Shake Test For Varroa Mite

When - Late summer, early fall is when the mites outside capped cells, on the bees, is highest. Brood rearing in the north slows down but mite populations begin to reach their peak.

Where - Take your sample from the brood frames, not honey frames. Mites prefer the nurse bees.

Why - So you have confidence in your management practices, are not guessing about the health of your bees, and don't sound irresponsible when you talk to others about your treatment free survival colonies. Not all will survive. You may still find yourself guessing about why but records can reveal all sorts of insights about your colonies that can often seem unimportant when your bees are thriving.

Example: This is the most inspiring example of successful treatment free management and the best done report of UK beekeeper Ron Hoskins working with a scientist to discover why his bees survive their mite loads:

WATCH THIS YouTube: "Honey Bees Able To Immunize Themselves Against Varroa"

Wishing all your bees a great fall nectar and pollen flow!

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

August Management For New Colonies

This article is restricted to my own late summer management practices for 1st season northern New England colonies. A link to a more general article by Larry Connor of Bee Culture can be found below.

I may use a lot of words here to say what is a fairly simple concept: 

·         BASICALLY: 
I emphasize “ripened honey” because nectar that is not ripened can freeze and melt back onto the bees if above the brood nest. (Yes... I’ve caused problems doing that.)

My established northern colonies usually ripen nectar in the brood box (bottom box) and then relocate the honey above the brood nest. The brood nest is wherever the queen is laying and where the bees intend to cluster for winter. Usually this is in the bottom of the hive so they can move up during the winter and eat along the way, following the heat rising from the cluster. They do this because bees are brilliant. In ten frame hives this poses a challenge with a small cluster that cannot risk separation to reach honey stored on the sides.

Normally you don’t mess with a 1st season colony in August. You do keep an eye on how well they are filling up the frames with pollen and honey. Usually healthy bees with a normal northern continuous nectar and pollen flow do it exactly right and the beekeeper does not have to do anything about reorganizing the frames in late summer, especially if no honey is harvested.

What might be helpful to the bees - ALWAYS TRY & HELP, NOT HINDER, WHAT THEY ARE UP TO:
  • About this time of year northern bees start managing their resources with winter in mind as the fall flow is just beginning. If you have a box full of empty frames and they are ignoring them you can pull up some full frames of HONEY (not brood) into the ignored box in an every-other-one fashion. That will encourage them to work on filling out the ignored frames.
  • Likewise if you see frames ignored on the sides or one side of the boxes, you can relocate them into an area of the hive that is busy with that kind of activity. 10 frame hives almost always need the beekeeper's attention in this way. Don’t try and do this in clustering temperatures (57F). Yes... I've done it. They are clustering, keeping each other warm, which means all regulating of hive box & frame conditions has come to a halt until spring.
  • Your goal is to have them settled in for the winter sometime in late October or mid November, in the bottom brood box with about two supers of RIPENED honey on top.
  • Not all colonies can fill up two supers but they really should be able to if no honey is taken off. I've had nucleus colonies over-winter in one box, but the most successful for my bees has been at least two medium supers. Some beekeepers feed their bees at this point to make sure they have plenty going into winter, but there is nothing more nutritious than the real thing.
  • If the queen is laying in the upper part of the hive now, in August, and there is capped honey beneath her: Wait until September to see where she is with this plan.
  • If it looks like the colony is settling in for winter in the top of the hive, there could be a significant draft from the cold they are avoiding or a breach of some kind between the boxes. Try and assess and fix this situation. We've had some pretty cold nights in the low 50s this week - so have they.
  • If you feel you need to re-position the brood area, be careful not to move frames with brood apart from each other. Keep them together, side by side, in the same order, if moved at all.
  • The queen’s laying will slow to a stop sometime in early winter depending on how fast winter sets in. This is normal. She’ll start laying again in March, but there will be a decline in population beginning about now (August).

An Excerpt: "Help the bees rearrange their brood and honey
In nature, such as a colony in a bee tree, bees will fill the upper combs with honey during the Summer and shift the brood rearing to the lower part of the nest. Managed bee colonies should attempt to duplicate this instinct. If the bees have moved up to the top of the (hive) … beekeepers are advised to move the brood nest to the lower hive body, and place brood frames filled with honey above the brood area. This will allow the bees to move upwards in the Winter. Heat rises and the bees will follow the heat as they Winter and eventually start to rear brood in the Winter. Once the bees are in cluster, they cannot move from the top box and crawl down to the stored honey and move it up unless there is a warm spell; and that can be very dangerous for the bees if the weather turns cold quickly and the bees are left stranded on the honey comb some distance from the brood cluster."

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

How Non-Acclimatized Bee Purchases Endanger Colonies In A Northern New England Apiary

This is long, but may save a hive or two if you have the time to read.

Trying to introduce new strains of bees into my apiary has been fun and successful but this winter it proved catastrophic. Minnesota Hygienic Bees are basically Italian. It has been a long time since I've had Italian bees. It makes since for an urban beekeeper, like respected scientist Marla Spivak, to breed for hygienic behaviors in a bee everyone already has; but they are not a wise choice for a northern climate despite Minnesota's reputation as a cold climate state. Here's why:

Race Behavior Differences: Honey bees that over-winter in the upper half of Maine, New Hampshire, & Vermont, as well as races of Apis Mellifera bees from Northern Europe or subarctic climates, namely Carniolan, Buckfast, & Russian, share many traits suitable for surviving Northern New England’s long winters & short nectar flows. Indeed, some climate pockets in my neck of the woods of New Hampshire are considered subarctic. The required behaviors of honey bees up here differ with honey bees used in the commercial beekeeping industry that has faithfully supplied U.S.A. farmers with bees for many decades. 

Commercial Sources: Those commercial bees are a U.S. hybrid of Southern European bee, also known as “Italian”. Italians were originally chosen for gentleness and their tendency to grow large populations to assist in pollinating mono-crop farms & orchards across the nation. Currently an American Carniolan-Italian hybrid has become a more common breed in use. Unfortunately, either selectively or circumstantially during normal commercial beekeeping migratory practices, these bees have had bred out of them many of the wild survival traits gifted by millions of years of evolution. When brought up north they behave like they are still on the migratory path, absconding when the bloom is done or just not having a clue they need to plan for long months of confinement in winter.

Available Education: Most books about honey bees published prior to about 2010 and most online educators today talk about management techniques that have traditionally benefited the Italian Hybrid American Honey Bee in the commercial industry because that is the bee everyone has affordable access to. 

At the end of the pollination season they are shipped off to small farms and hobbyist beekeepers around the country regardless of climate or geographical location. Unlike today's northern bee populations beginning to flourish in stationary apiaries across Northern New England, those hybrid bees are not winter savvy, having Southern European roots; nor are they disease resistant. This is primarily because these commercial colonies have been heavily managed for the sake of annual pollination expeditions that include exposure to agricultural chemicals and contaminant accumulations in the hive which break down overall colony health. 

As a matter of routine commercial bees are also treated with antibiotics & miticides and fed a diet of supplemental feed to compensate for nutritional deficiencies on the road. These colonies most often overwinter in large holding yards in a mild climate. The average beekeeper has been taught through older books and old school teachers similar management practices in order to keep these incredibly stressed honey bee colonies alive on their small farms and in their backyards. As a result the American hybrid honey bee continues to prove less resilient & productive than in times past. Farmers who grew up with bees and raised their own children with bees come into my shop on a regular basis with sad tales of wonderment at what might possibly have gone wrong.

April 20th - Live maples in Wonalancet
Over-wintered IN NORTHERN NEW ENGLAND or Northern Acclimatized Honey Bees:

I struggled for years to respect and implement these traditional management methods up north as do most beekeepers with limited access to educational opportunities aimed specifically at our northern climate and northern acclimatized honey bee sources. In New Hampshire alone I continue to appreciate the need for beekeeping practices to vary considerably depending on the race of bee acquired and how it is managed from the southern part of the state to the north, mountain to ocean, farm to forest.

Northern bees raised locally are certainly proving to be healthier, but also more conservative and winter savvy than bees from the commercial industry. These hardy bees with most all their evolutionary gifts intact make smaller clusters in winter, breed more brood or less brood depending on the nectar flows, & do best in smaller hives. They can tolerate confinement for as much as six months of too-cold-to-fly weather. Commercially sourced bees can no longer do this reliably without a great deal of nutritional and medicinal support from the beekeeper and then you have to ask "How pure really is my wax and honey?"

Eight frame hives have been recommended by myself and others for these smaller colonies. Last year at the annual EAS Convention in New Jersey I felt validated in this recommendation when hearing the results of a nationwide Bee Informed survey that revealed a 10% increase of over-wintering success with eight frame hives over ten. In my own experience making the journey from ten to eight, this seems primarily due to the colony being unable to break cluster in a ten frame to move horizontally to reach outward honey stores.

If you are beginning to acquire northern bred, northern race honey bees and continue to nurse along the more affordable but vulnerable bees acquired from the commercial industry, precautions must be taken. Strive to keep all hives of your Northern race protected from the robbing behaviors, diseases, & parasites of the hybrid Italian bees, packaged bees, or generally unacclimatized bees. I'm not saying treat your northern bees with miticides; but if you treat the Italians, space your hives considerably apart from each other with some brush obstructions, as Cornell University Professor Tom Seeley recommends, or relocate those commercially sourced bees with high mite counts to another apiary for treatment.

Robbing is the worst threat of all. My new Minnesota Hygienic bees were out flying one sunny day in March when all my old established bees were still in cluster. I could see my hardy north country bees with my thermal camera and knew they had 30 lbs of honey to go before the 1st nectar flow; what hadn't occurred to me was that this weak Italian colony had it in them to rob out those 30 lbs with virtually no resistance. They were starving - of course they were - they had eaten through all their stores and the queen was laying. It was "spring" after all; so instead, the old northern colony, well prepared to make it through a fourth winter in my apiary, fully aware March doesn't really come until May around here, was the colony to starve. I relied too much on my unobtrusive thermal camera and notes on what was stored where instead of taking the usual peek under the hood. Deadly, costly mistake.

So I sent them packing... to my sister-in-law who just finished Bee School in Massachusetts & only wanted one hive. I'm sure they are loving it down there... no hard feelings... well, a few. Honey bees will certainly prove to be the great survivors of our time.

Some insights:

~ Research has shown for some decades now that northern bees "bottle cap" their honey and will teach this, & other things northern, to the young of a southern queen. In the same way, southern nurse bees will teach the young of a northern queen to do things the southern way. This could prove problematic when seeking to utilize an inexpensive or available package of bees by requeening with a northern queen. "Bottle capping" leaves space under the honey cell cap & is just one talent performed & taught by northern bees in anticipation of cold weather and temperature fluctuations.

~ Always double check that your YouTube video watching and internet info is coming from our geographical area and pertains to Russian or Northern New England acclimatized honey bees.

~ Basically, a beekeeper can trust northern bees to be climate savvy, and anything the beekeeper may question they are doing when reading or hearing about Italians may be perfectly fine for northern bees to be doing. Think "Darwinian". 

Minnesota Gang sent packing
off to Waltham
~ Often old timey beekeepers and books tell the beekeeper to replace the queen if they aren’t performing well. Don’t replace the northern queen; usually slowing down the population is a valuable trait for survival. A win-win management approach is to add brood from another hive. If the queen is failing this gives the bees the tools to work it out  for themselves.
Let them do their thing this first year and learn how well they operate as a colony.  

~ Also, as always with all bees, don’t take any honey off their first year
Below is an excerpt of research on Russian bees that provides some perspective to northern bee race differences. I've replaced "Russian" with Northern acclimatized & you can read the whole article at the link in the title:

“(Northern acclimatized) bees are quite different from standard Italian bees in several ways 

• (Northern acclimatized) bees do not build their colony populations until pollen is available, and they shut down brood rearing when pollen is scarce. This characteristic makes them suitable in areas where the main honey and pollen flows occur later in the year, such as the mountains of North Carolina (or New England). By contrast, Italian bees maintain a large brood area and worker population regardless of environmental conditions. This trait can result in more bees than the hive can feed and may lead Italian colonies to early winter starvation. It also explains the Italian bee’s tendency to rob other colonies of their honey stores. (RESULTS IN THE DEATH of northern colonies vulnerable while continuing to cluster due to the northern acclimatized colony’s genetic disposition to conserve resources)

• (Northern acclimatized) colonies maintain active queen cells throughout the brood-rearing season. In Italian colonies, the presence of queen cells is interpreted by beekeepers as an attempt to swarm (reduce overcrowding by establishing a new colony) or to supersede the resident queen. This is not the case with (Northern acclimatized) bees as the workers often destroy the extra queen cells before they fully develop.”

Friday, May 12, 2017

Cosmetic Grade Beeswax

The Bucket - I have been learning to perfect the processing of my beeswax after years of trial and error and collecting. It is such a pleasure to take a big whiff of my scrap bucket from hives past still smelling of fresh honey. That's good beeswax!

I think one of the primary reasons I can't bring myself to treat my hives with miticides or feed my bees with essential oil recipes is the fear it will end up in the wax & other precious products of the hive... and it can.

Before & After processing - silicone bar mold is well worth the investment
Cosmetic Grade Beeswax - But, not all wax is considered "cosmetic grade" and if your neighbor calls with a request for beeswax for homemade lotions, cosmetic grade is what you will want to offer.

Cosmetic grade come from the little caps our girls excrete from their bellies to seal up honey in the comb. Other pieces of wax should be kept separate from this "cappings wax" - a valuable resource of the hive.

Candle Grade - Honey comb in chunks from crush and strain methods of harvesting honey, from old lost hives, or rotated out brood frames contain organic matter. This beeswax is best suited for candles.

Candle Grade or Furniture Grade - If you have scraps of beeswax foundation or brittle, recycled foundation sheets it is possible some chemicals have found their way in to the mix as well, from the maker or brought in from the environment. I keep these collections separate just in case.

Someday I hope to use my cappings wax stash to roll my own foundation to insure a chem-free hive and there is a great video on some UK beekeepers who have perfected that here. 

My Farmers' Market bars & bears
A Safe Sell - So, I believe we beekeepers, no matter our management practices, can reasonably insure that "cappings wax" is pure and worthy of use in making creams, salves, lip gloss, and lotions. It demands a premium price for all your great efforts in raising healthy bees. I have assessed that my own 2017 cosmetic grade wax is worth $2 an ounce; my own "candle grade" wax $1.25 an ounce.

The $1 Crock Pot - I gave up on my solar melter - just doesn't get hot enough here for dependable results - and now use a crock pot from a second hand store, covered with cheesecloth that is rubber-banded on to hold a paper towel that acts as a very good sieve.

This sits all day while I periodically place handfuls of cappings wax on top. Once it melts down, I turn off the pot, let it cool, and there is my beautiful naturally golden disk of cosmetic grade beeswax. YouTube Example Here

I am not a candle maker - maybe I would be if those silicone molds were not so expensive! I did invest, however in one that makes one ounce bars. This allows me to sell by the ounce as most cosmetic makers only need an ounce or three. Do not use a mold release on your cosmetic grade beeswax. The silicone mold if kept clean should not stick. Sometimes when in a hurry for candle grade I will use Vaseline, but exposing your cappings wax to a mold release of any kind is not appropriate.

Before I pour the bars they go through one more strain in a nylon stocking, rubber-banded onto a double boiler, also for cheap at a local second hand store - but I love these tools and would have bought them new if I had to for the ease they have afforded my beeswax processing routine.

Monday, March 27, 2017

My Beehive Set Up

My bees thrive well in an eight frame hive set up here in Northern New Hampshire. I tweaked the ten frame hives I'd invested in so heavily until finally, several years ago, gave in to this narrower concept. 

My bees wanted to go up, following the heat of the cluster in winter. Honey left on the outskirts of a super that would tempt them to break cluster to reach, was ignored once cold weather set in. Sometimes colonies starved.

The diseases I was seeing in my failed ten frame colonies screamed of moisture and poor ventilation; so I utilized the "varroa" screened bottom board to help with airflow. William Bonny's old book on "Hive Management" agreed with a local farmer's advice to keep a pine needle filled super on top during winter to catch moisture. That book also introduced me to homasote board. 

All these changes begun to work well, but I feared the brood box would be exposed to abrupt airflow sitting there on that screened bottom, especially going into - and coming out of - winter. 

The discovery of a swarm control component called the "slatted rack" was the next stop in my beekeeping journey. I found it perfect for buffering the brood box from the outside air. It also gave the chilly spring foragers a place to hang out in increment weather instead of crowding up into the nursery. 

The bees loved it and so do I. Setting all this on top of two leveled chimney stones cut off any direct cold air flow. It also seemed high enough off the ground to discourage skunks from scratching at the door. So did the new solar powered fencing.

After about three years of failure with southern packages and nucs queened from California stock, I began to choose northern honey bees, raised farther north than I was. I'd drive as far as I had to go. This was to try and insure overwintering survival with our uniquely short nectar flows in my mountain intervale - only five and a half months - late April to the end of September. 

In that many years the trees had also grown a few feet higher in my apiary, putting every colony in full shade. Also by that time every wasp in area knew where my hives lived. Two colonies were killed. A move had to be made. 

About then a neighbor in failing health invited me to place hives in view of his window. He lived long enough to take pleasure for a few seasons watching my bees enjoy full sun on several acres of wild forage with a northern wind break of wonderful nectar and pollen producing trees. So far most of my colonies have been able to continue in this ideal location.

These savvy acclimatized honey bees now filling my narrow hives, along with the changes made to my apiary set up, began to bring joy instead of angst to my beekeeping. I have had a few summer losses due to normal events, including beekeeper-too-busy-itis during swarm season, however, no losses winter through mid-summer like I was experiencing before. I do see mites, but not high counts others are dealing with. Most importantly, I see no diseases, and previous to these changes I think I saw them all except AFB.

I've hung in there as a beekeeper by focusing on the specific issues facing my colonies instead of trusting a lot of disparaging advice to blame every beekeeping malady on varroa mites; solve every problem with treatments. I've also looked to successful northern bee school teachers and scientist, like New England's own Tom Seeley, for insights.

Mostly I've trusted my gut. Not out of stubbornness, necessarily. On some level, though not a scientist, my ongoing studies in honey bee biology seem to say that, given a good home, these bees should be able to thrive where they live, dependent primarily on the wonderful gifts millions of years of evolution has bestowed on them.

I believe this focus has encouraged my continued research, participation in educational opportunities, and brought me satisfaction with small successes that keep me in a very difficult and expensive quest. 

I've been uncertain much of the time with my choices. I've bought miticides or antibiotics - then never had the nerve to go through with treatments. In the end, trusting my gut, paying attention to my bees, and enjoying the occasional validation of science, has so far won the day. 

I didn't know I was this person... this "scientist"; I just wanted to be a beekeeper. 

Fortunately, honey bees are a rather brilliant, persistent little species. They are determined to pull us in, teach us their needs and hopefully, in exchange for a little honey and beauty and food, survive to use a few million more years of the amazing gifts of evolution they are so marvelous at utilizing even in a dramatically changed world.
I have these eight frame hive set ups for sale as close to cost as I can afford at my shop in Center Ossipee, NH. They are crafted locally, are all New England pine, and mostly from sustainably harvested wood. They are complete in accommodating the need for frames and boxes in a full season for one colony: 1 deep, 2 mediums. They include a cedar landing board, a notched pine inner cover, a slatted rack, and a shim for feeding options. You can see them in detail. Take a look at but I don't sell online. Just call and I can pull one together for you. I really appreciate being able to serve local beekeepers and teach classes throughout the season on honey bees and my beekeeping methods.