This article is restricted to my own late summer management practices for 1st season northern New England colonies. A link to a more general article by Larry Connor of Bee Culture can be found below.
I may use a lot of words here to say what is a fairly simple concept:
- THE BEES WILL USUALLY MANAGE THEIR LATE SUMMER RESOURCES IN THE HIVE CORRECTLY: PUT THE RIPENED HONEY IN THE FRAMES ABOVE THE BROOD NEST. ALL RIPENED HONEY NEEDS TO BE ABOVE CLUSTER IN LATE FALL (NOVEMBER). IF THEY DON’T DO IT –BIG IF – THE BEEKEEPER CAN HELP.
I emphasize “ripened honey” because nectar that is not ripened can freeze and melt back onto the bees if above the brood nest. (Yes... I’ve caused problems doing that.)
- A STEADY DECLINE IN POPULATION IS NORMAL TO BEGIN THIS TIME OF YEAR.
- AN ABSENCE OF DRONE BROOD IS NORMAL THIS TIME OF YEAR IN NORTHERN COLONIES.
- THIS IS WHEN MITE COUNTS ARE DONE - FOR TREATMENT-FREE-BEES RECORD KEEPING, ESPECIALLY
My established northern colonies usually ripen nectar in the brood box (bottom box) and then relocate the honey above the brood nest. The brood nest is wherever the queen is laying and where the bees intend to cluster for winter. Usually this is in the bottom of the hive so they can move up during the winter and eat along the way, following the heat rising from the cluster. They do this because bees are brilliant. In ten frame hives this poses a challenge with a small cluster that cannot risk separation to reach honey stored on the sides.
Normally you don’t mess with a 1st season colony in August. You do keep an eye on how well they are filling up the frames with pollen and honey. Usually healthy bees with a normal northern continuous nectar and pollen flow do it exactly right and the beekeeper does not have to do anything about reorganizing the frames in late summer, especially if no honey is harvested.
- About this time of year northern bees start managing their resources with winter in mind as the fall flow is just beginning. If you have a box full of empty frames and they are ignoring them you can pull up some full frames of HONEY (not brood) into the ignored box in an every-other-one fashion. That will encourage them to work on filling out the ignored frames.
- Likewise if you see frames ignored on the sides or one side of the boxes, you can relocate them into an area of the hive that is busy with that kind of activity. 10 frame hives almost always need the beekeeper's attention in this way. Don’t try and do this in clustering temperatures (57F). Yes... I've done it. They are clustering, keeping each other warm, which means all regulating of hive box & frame conditions has come to a halt until spring.
- Your goal is to have them settled in for the winter sometime in late October or mid November, in the bottom brood box with about two supers of RIPENED honey on top.
- Not all colonies can fill up two supers but they really should be able to if no honey is taken off. I've had nucleus colonies over-winter in one box, but the most successful for my bees has been at least two medium supers. Some beekeepers feed their bees at this point to make sure they have plenty going into winter, but there is nothing more nutritious than the real thing.
- If the queen is laying in the upper part of the hive now, in August, and there is capped honey beneath her: Wait until September to see where she is with this plan.
- If it looks like the colony is settling in for winter in the top of the hive, there could be a significant draft from the cold they are avoiding or a breach of some kind between the boxes. Try and assess and fix this situation. We've had some pretty cold nights in the low 50s this week - so have they.
- If you feel you need to re-position the brood area, be careful not to move frames with brood apart from each other. Keep them together, side by side, in the same order, if moved at all.
- The queen’s laying will slow to a stop sometime in early winter depending on how fast winter sets in. This is normal. She’ll start laying again in March, but there will be a decline in population beginning about now (August).
Article Link - click here: A very balanced report from Larry Connor of Bee Culture on August Duties I like very much. He allows for including common management styles, like fall feeding and treating, without much bias.
An Excerpt: "Help the bees rearrange their brood and honey
In nature, such as a colony in a bee tree, bees will fill the upper combs with honey during the Summer and shift the brood rearing to the lower part of the nest. Managed bee colonies should attempt to duplicate this instinct. If the bees have moved up to the top of the (hive) … beekeepers are advised to move the brood nest to the lower hive body, and place brood frames filled with honey above the brood area. This will allow the bees to move upwards in the Winter. Heat rises and the bees will follow the heat as they Winter and eventually start to rear brood in the Winter. Once the bees are in cluster, they cannot move from the top box and crawl down to the stored honey and move it up unless there is a warm spell; and that can be very dangerous for the bees if the weather turns cold quickly and the bees are left stranded on the honey comb some distance from the brood cluster."